Why urinary tract infections occur
Before urinary infections we have to also know about the urinary system. It consists of two kidneys, two ureters, ureter (urinary bladder), prostate gland (prostate) and urethra (urethra). The main function of the urinary system is the excretion of harmful substances (such as urea) from the body and the regulation of water, mineral salts, acidity or alkali properties of the body. The kidneys also help in regulating blood pressure and hemoglobin content.
The functioning of the kidneys is directly related to all other organs of the body such as heart, lungs, liver, gastric intestine, and brain, etc. through the blood vessels and blood, hence the chronic infection of the kidneys (chronic pyelonephritis) results in all such patients. Organ-related symptoms are often found and can cause infectious diseases present in any part or part of the body; Such as boil or TB. Therefore, in such patients, apart from the kidneys, physical examination of all other body parts is done carefully.
Different types of infection
Infections in the urinary tract can only be present in one or both kidneys (pyelonephritis) or (abscess), only in the bladder (cystitis), only in the urethritis (urethritis), only in the prostate gland (prostatitis) or in all parts simultaneously is…
What microbes are the infection from
This is very important to find out and it depends on the right treatment. Infections can mostly occur from bacteria (eg E. coli) and sometimes from fungus or viruses. Also, remember that urinary tract infection can also be caused by the bacteria of TB.
Specific infection in a diabetic patient.
In addition to the following bacteria in diabetic patients, in addition to the following bacteria, staphylococcus bacteria and fungus are also often seen as an infection, so if the patient does not get immediate benefit or if the infection is repeated, the patient also gets blood sugar test. Kidney infections of these patients sometimes result in a dangerous complication (papillary necrosis).
How bacteria reach the urinary tract
In most patients, bacteria pass through the urethra into the bladder and then into the kidneys. This happens especially in women as their length of urethra is much less than that of men. The intestinal bacteria present around the anus enter the urethra easily. That is why the rate of infection in urin is much higher in women than in men. Sometimes, due to some contagious disease in other organs, the bacteria reach the kidneys through blood and thrive there and cause an infection there too. In a male patient, doctors always try to find out why the infection occurred. There are several root causes.
Such as the formation of stones in the urethra, enlargement of the prostate gland, changes in the structure of the urethra, (any congenital disease), some diseases of the nervous system, diabetes, TB, cancer, etc. Many of these diseases can also be responsible for women. The inflow of urine from the bladder back into the ureter in children also promotes infection of urine.
Urinary tract infection can easily occur if there is obstruction of urine flow due to any of these or any other reason (like pressure on the bladder of the uterus in pregnancy) because in this case, the number of bacteria increases very quickly. That is why it is necessary to detect the presence of these causes in every patient of infection. As long as the cause of the blockage is not treated, the infection will not be completely cured. And this blockage will also have adverse effects on the structure and functioning of the kidneys. In addition to stones, enlargement of the prostate gland (in old age) is the major cause of obstruction.
Catheters are also responsible for the infection
For some reason, such as stones, prostate gland, or urethral structure in the wall of the urethra, after some operation of the stomach, or as a result of some diseases of the nervous system when there is no proper flow of urine from the bladder or urethra to the patient. Sometimes, a catheter (tube) is required to be inserted into the urethra, which can lead to urinary tract infection if it is not free of infection. That is why catheter should not be inserted as far as possible and only sterilized catheter should be used if necessary. And the catheter should be inserted very carefully by an experienced person. If the catheter remains in the bladder for a long period of time and is not taken proper care of it, then the chances of infection in the urinary tract increases. And so the catheter should be removed as soon as possible.
Major symptoms of urinary tract infection
Frequent urination, urination with burning sensation, intermittent urination, pain in urine flow, dirty and smelly urination, blood in urine, abdominal pain under the tendon, backache, fever, Fluttering occurs. Some patients have fever only. Initially, many such patients continue to seek treatment for malaria, typhoid or TB, if they do not have any urinary symptoms. Only abdominal pain and vomiting in children can be the main symptoms of urinary infection, so it is necessary to check urine in them as well. Many such patients understand intestinal disease. And continue to take pain relief medicines but do not get any special benefit.
In some patients, due to urinary tract infection, bacteria get into the blood and reach other organs of the body and also affect their functioning. Due to which the blood pressure of such patients is greatly reduced, the urine volume also decreases, the pulse and breathing speed increases and the patient also becomes unconscious. This condition is considered very dangerous. It is mandatory to treat it very soon. Kidney infections occur frequently in some patients. If they do not take proper treatment, then gradually the ability of the kidneys starts decreasing and when such patients come for a consultation, their kidneys become very bad. In this condition, symptoms of ‘kidney failure’ occur in them. For example, very low urine volume.
Having vomiting, no appetite, anemia, swelling on the body, etc. That is why proper and effective treatment of urinary infection is necessary to avoid this condition.
How to diagnose urinary tract infection?
After giving detailed information of symptoms to the patient, a physical examination is done and then necessary tests are done. In which urine testing is very important. Sometimes some other tests like, T.L.C., D.L.C., Creatinine, urea, blood sugar, etc. Plain X-ray X-rays in some patients V. P. (Pyelography), ultrasound, and CAT scan are also required.
How to collect a urine sample
- For the normal examination of urine, a sufficient quantity of urine should be taken first thing in the morning in a clean glass vial and should be given to the laboratory as soon as possible so that it can be examined immediately.
- To see the bacteria from microscope, clean the vagina with clean water to collect urine and allow a little urine to flow and then collect urine (urine in the middle).
- In addition to the method mentioned (urine culture), to identify the bacteria responsible for infection and to know the effective medicine on them (by the female nurse of the vaginal cord (or the patient herself), a special type of sterilized tube (culture) Collect the urine in the middle of the razor tube (which can be found in any laboratory).
- Open the cotton covering this tube immediately before collecting urine and close it immediately after taking the urine sample and give this sample to the laboratory for examination as soon as possible. For this test, men collect the urine sample by trailing the skin of the front end of their urethra.
Your doctor will tell you what to check for urine as there are many types of tests in the urine.
While treating urinary tract infection, keep in mind that the infection should be completely eliminated so that the disease does not return again.
Do not adversely affect the structure and function of the kidneys, medicine should be cheap, effective and harmless. The symptoms of the patient disappear soon and the infection of the kidneys does not spread to other parts of the body. If it is convenient, then it would be good if treatment is done by finding the effective bacteria on the bacteria responsible for the urine culture.
So that you can get instant success. Drugs used in urinary tract infections are norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, Gintama isin, nitrofurantoin, cotrimoxazole, cephalexin, etc. Take them only in consultation with a doctor.
If the infection is from TB bacteria, medicines like rifampicin, pyrazine mide, isonazid, ethambutol are considered beneficial. Which should also be taken under the supervision of a doctor.
If the patient is not getting benefit in a short period of time or the infection is recurring, then it is necessary to pay attention to the causes of complication, such as stones, prostate, diabetes, TB, cancer, catheter, etc.
Every pregnant woman should get her urine tested early so that the infection does not increase due to the pressure of the uterus in later months, otherwise, there is a fear of kidney failure.
Read More… Urinary track infections
– Dr. Narendra Singh